J. Phys. III France 4 (1994) 1129-1149
Development of piezoelectric composites for transducersA. Safari
Department of Ceramic Engineering and Center for Ceramic Research, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway NJ08855-0909, U.S.A.
(Received 20 December 1993, accepted 3 November 1994)
For the past decade and a half, many different types of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites have been developed intended for transducer applications. These diphasic composites are prepared from non-active polymer, such as epoxy, and piezoelectric ceramic, such as PZT, in the form of filler powders, elongated fibers, multilayer and more complex three-dimensional structures. For the last four years, most of the efforts have been given to producing large area and fine scale PZT fiber composites. In this paper, processing of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with various connectivity patterns are reviewed. Development of fine scale piezoelectric composites by lost mold, injection molding and the relic method are described. Research activities of different groups for preparing large area piezocomposites for hydrophone and actuator applications are briefly reviewed. Initial development of electrostrictive ceramics and composites are also
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